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№3, 2023: Раздел 2. Физическая география и биогеография, география почв и геохимия ландшафтов

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Раздел 2. Физическая география и биогеография, география почв и геохимия ландшафтов
Е.Ю. Колбовский. Культурные ландшафты как объект геоинформационного моделирования
Стр.33-40
https://www.doi.org/10.24412/1728-323X-2023-3-33-40


Е.Ю. Колбовский, доктор географических наук, профессор, ведущий научный сотрудник кафедры геоэкологии географического факультета МГУ им. Ломоносова, в.н.с. отдела физической географии и проблемы природопользования Института географии Российской академии наук (ИГ РАН), [email protected], Москва, Россия

Аннотация Сложность концепции культурного ландшафта объясняется гетерогенным происхождением основных смыслов, заложенных в это понятие, исторически разрабатываемых с позиций разных наук (географии, истории, социологии, архитектуры, психологии, эстетики). В последние 25-30 лет произошла концептуализация термина, позволяющая, с одной стороны, рассматривать культурный ландшафт как одно из базовых понятий исторической геоэкологии, с другой – выделить в нем группы свойств и качеств, которые могут быть предметом геоинформационного моделирования. Инвентаризация, классифицирование и картографирование традиционных ландшафтов реализованная в рамках программ по сохранению природно-культурного наследия разных стран привели к накоплению опыта пространственного анализа в данной сфере и становлению методологии Исторических Геоинформационных Систем. Актуальность задачи ГИС-моделирования сохранившихся до нашего времени образцов традиционных культурных ландшафтов определяется наличием нерешенных теоретических проблем и необходимостью включения культурных ландшафтов как безусловной ценности в современные процедуры территориального и специального (например, туристско-рекреационного) планирования.  Более глубокая разработка методологии геоинформационного моделирования культурных ландшафтов может быть достигнута посредством различения четырех типов моделей с соответствующим каждому типу набором алгоритмов, свойств и параметров: модели структуры, модели функционирования, модели отношений (или социальной модели) и модели метафизики (или сакральной) модели культурного ландшафта.
Abstract The complexity of the concept of cultural landscape is explained by the heterogeneous origin of the basic meanings embedded in this concept, historically developed in terms of different sciences (geography, history, sociology, architecture, psychology, aesthetics). In the recent 25-30 years, the term has been conceptualized, allowing us, on the one hand, to consider the cultural landscape as one of the basic concepts of historical geoecology, on the other, to identify groups of properties and qualities in it that can be the subject of geoinformation modeling. Inventory, classification and mapping of traditional landscapes implemented within the framework of programs for the preservation of natural and cultural heritage of different countries have led to the accumulation of experience in spatial analysis in this area and the formation of the methodology of Historical Geoinformation Systems (HIGIS). The relevance of the issue of GIS modeling of samples of traditional cultural landscapes that have survived to the present day is determined by the presence of unresolved theoretical issues and the need to include cultural landscapes as an absolute value in modern procedures of territorial and special (e.g., tourist and recreational) planning. A deeper development of the methodology of geoinformation modeling of cultural landscapes can be achieved by distinguishing four types of models with a set of algorithms, properties and parameters corresponding to each type: structure models, functioning models, relationship models (or social models) and metaphysical (or sacred) models of the cultural landscape.
Ключевые слова: культурные ландшафты, геоинформационное моделирование, модель структуры, модель функционирования, модель отношения, модель метафизики культурного ландшафты
Keywords: cultural landscapes, geoinformation modeling, structure model, functioning model, relationship model, model of metaphysics of cultural landscapes

Библиографический список
1. Колбовский Е.Ю. Культурный ландшафт: в разнообразии значений не утерявший смысл // Наследие и современность. 2018. 1(4).  С. 8-22.
2. Whyte I. D. Landscape and History since 1500. Reaktion Books: University of Chicago Press. 2004. 256 p.
3. Sauer С.O. The morphology of landscape / С.O. Sauer. University California Publ.: Geography. 1925.  № 2. p. 19–53. Reprinted in: Human geography. An essential anthology.  UK. Oxford: Blackwell publishing, 1996.  P. 296–315.
4. Swanwick C. Landscape character assessment. Guidance for England and Scotland. Wetherby: The Countryside Agency/Scottisch Natural Heritage. 2002. 113 p.
5. Tuan Yi-Fu.  Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Columbia University Press, 1990.  260 p.
6. Cosgrove D. Social formation and symbolic landscape. Madison: Wisconsin University Press.  1998. 293 p.
7. Appleton J. The Experience of Landscape. London: John Wiley. 1975. 311 p.
8. Экo У. Отсутствующая структура. Введение в семиологию / Перев. с итал. В. Г. Резник и А. Г. Погоняйло.  СПб.: «Симпозиум», 2006.  544 с.
9. Bell S. Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape. London and New York: Spon Press, 2004. 220 p.
10. Carlson A., Nature and Landscape: An Introduction to Environmental Aesthetics.  New York: Columbia University Press. 2008. 348 p.
11. Aston M. Interpreting the Landscape: Landscape Archaeology and Local History.  London:  Routledge Pages. 1985. 168 p.
12. Roberts B.K. Landscapes of Settlement: Prehistory to the Present.  London: Psychology Press, 1996. 181 p.
13. Rippon S. Historic landscape analysis: Deciphering the countryside / Practical handbooks in archaeology, No.16. York, CBA Publications. 2012. 160 pp.
14. Angus I. Facing the Anthropocene Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System. New York^ Monthly Review Press. 2016. 277 pp.
15. Geomorphological Processes and Landscape Change: Britain in the Last 1000 Years / David L. Higgitt and E. Mark Lee (eds). Blackwell Publishers Ltd 2001. 297 p.
16. Brasseur B., Ertlen D., Vincent R. Soil Archives: Where Soilscape History Meets Present-day Ecosystems / Historical Ecology Learning from the Past to the Present and Forecast the Future of Ecosystems. London:  ISTE Ltd. 2022.  pp. 85-95.
17. Antrop M., Van Eetvelde V. Landscape Perspectives: The Holistic Nature of Landscape.  Springer, Landscape Series, 29.  2017. 436 p.
18. Vera F.W.M. Grazing Ecology and Forest History. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 2000. pp. 506.
19. Trees, Forested Landscapes and Grazing Animals. A European Perspective on Woodlands and Grazed Treescapes.  Edited by Ian D. Rotherham. New York . Routledge. 2013.
20. Leuschner C., Ellenberg H. Ecology of Central European Forests. Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe, Volume I.  Springer. 2017. 971 p.
21. Historical Ecology. Learning from the Past to Understand the Present and Forecast the Future of Ecosystems. Coordinated by Guillaume Decocq. ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  2022. 304 p.
22. Croft A., Munby J., Ridley M. Kent Historic Landscape Characterization. English Heritage. Oxford Archaeological Unit May 2001. 178 p.
23. Martin J., Farmer A. Landscape Character Assessment in Ireland: Baseline Audit and  Evaluation, Heritage Council Associates. 2006. 89 p.
24. Lambrick G. Historic Landscape Characterisation in Ireland:  Best practice guidance.  The Heritage Council. 2013. 93 p.
25. Yuan M.  Geographical Enrichment of Historical Landscapes: Spatial Integration, Geo-Narrative, Spatial Narrative, and Deep Mapping / Historical Geography and Geosciences.  / Edit. Travis Ch., Ludlow Fr., Gyuris F.  Springer Nature. Switzerland AG. 2020. pp. 143-167.
26. Geoinformation Technologies for Geo-Cultural Landscapes: European Perspectives. / Edit. Vassilopoulos A., Evelpidou N., Bender O., Krek A. Taylor & Francis eBooks. CRC Press. 2008. 300 p.
27. Guidelines for Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment / The Landscape Institute with the Institute of Environmental Management/ Spon Press & Taylor and Francis group. London and New York. 2013. 184 p.
28. Remote Sensing for Archaeology and Cultural Landscapes. Best Practices and Perspectives Across Europe and the Middle East. / Ed. Hadjimitsis D. G. Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020. 283 p.
29. Колбовский Е.Ю. Четыре типа моделей культурного ландшафта в рамках геоинформационного моделирования: задачи, возможности, ограничения// Наследие и современность. 2022. 5(4). С. 371-391.
30. Langemeyer L, Calcagnia F., Barуa F. Mapping the intangible: Using geolocated social media data to examine landscape aesthetics // Land Use Policy. 77 2018. Pp. 542–552.
31. Колбовский Е.Ю. Эстетическое значение экосистем. Экосистемные услуги России: Прототип национального доклада.  Т. 2. Биоразнообразие и экосистемные услуги: принципы учёта в России /Ред. Е.Н. Букварёва, Т.В. Свиридова.  М.: Изд-во Центра охраны дикой природы, 2020. С. 95 - 105.

Cultural landscapes as an object of GIS-modeling
E.Yu. Kolbowskiy, Ph.D. (Geography), Dr. Habil, Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences (IG RAS), [email protected], Moscow, Russia

References
1. Kolbovskiy E.Yu. Kul'turnyj landshaft: v raznoobrazii znachenij ne uteryavshij smysl. [Cultural landscape: in a variety of meanings that has not lost its meaning]. Nasledie i sovremennost'. 2018. No. 1(4).  P. 8-22. [in Russian]
2. Whyte I. D. Landscape and History since 1500. Reaction Books: University of Chicago Press. 2004. 256 p.
3. Sauer С.O. The morphology of landscape / С.O. Sauer. University California Publ.: Geography. 1925.  No. 2. P. 19–53. Reprinted in: Human geography. An essential anthology.  UK. Oxford: Blackwell publishing, 1996.  P. 296–315.
4. Swanwick C. Landscape character assessment. Guidance for England and Scotland. Wetherby: The Countryside Agency/Scottisch Natural Heritage. 2002. 113 p.
5. Tuan Yi-Fu.  Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Columbia University Press, 1990.  260 p.
6. Cosgrove D. Social formation and symbolic landscape. Madison, Wisconsin University Press.  1998. 293 p.
7. Appleton J. The Experience of Landscape. London, John Wiley. 1975. 311 p.
8. Eko U. Otsutstvuyushchaya struktura. Vvedenie v semiologiyu [Missing structure. Introduction to Semiology] SPb., Simpozium. 2006.  544 p. [in Russian]
9. Bell S. Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape. London and New York, Spon Press. 2004. 220 p.
10. Carlson A. Nature and Landscape: An Introduction to Environmental Aesthetics.  New York, Columbia University Press. 2008. 348 p.
11. Aston M. Interpreting the Landscape: Landscape Archaeology and Local History.  London, Routledge Pages. 1985. 168 p.
12. Roberts B.K. Landscapes of Settlement: Prehistory to the Present.  London, Psychology Press. 1996. 181 p.
13. Rippon S. Historic landscape analysis: Deciphering the countryside. Practical handbooks in archaeology. No.16. York, CBA Publications. 2012. 160 p.
14. Angus I. Facing the Anthropocene Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System. New York, Monthly Review Press. 2016. 277 p.
15. Geomorphological Processes and Landscape Change: Britain in the Last 1000 Years / David L. Higgitt and E. Mark Lee (eds). Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 2001. 297 p.
16. Brasseur B., Ertlen D., Vincent R. Soil Archives: Where Soilscape History Meets Present-day Ecosystems. Historical Ecology Learning from the Past to the  Present and Forecast the Future of Ecosystems. London, ISTE Ltd. 2022. P. 85-95.
17. Antrop M., Van Eetvelde V. Landscape Perspectives: The Holistic Nature of Landscape.  Springer, Landscape Series. No. 29.  2017. 436 p.
18. Vera F.W.M. Grazing Ecology and Forest History. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. 2000. P. 506.
19. Trees, Forested Landscapes and Grazing Animals. A European Perspective on Woodlands and Grazed Treescapes.  Edited by Ian D. Rotherham. New York, Routledge. 2013.
20. Leuschner C., Ellenberg H. Ecology of Central European Forests. Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe. Vol. I.  Springer. 2017. 971 p.
21. Historical Ecology. Learning from the Past to Understand the Present and Forecast the Future of Ecosystems. Coordinated by Guillaume Decocq. ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  2022. 304 p.
22. Croft A., Munby J., Ridley M. Kent Historic Landscape Characterization. English Heritage. Oxford Archaeological Unit. May 2001. 178 p.
23. Martin J., Farmer A. Landscape Character Assessment in Ireland: Baseline Audit and Evaluation, Heritage Council Associates. 2006. 89 p.
24. Lambrick G. Historic Landscape Characterisation in Ireland:  Best practice guidance.  The Heritage Council. 2013. 93 p.
25. Yuan M.  Geographical Enrichment of Historical Landscapes: Spatial Integration, Geo-Narrative, Spatial Narrative, and Deep Mapping. Historical Geography and Geosciences.  Edit. Travis Ch., Ludlow Fr., Gyuris F.  Springer Nature. Switzerland AG. 2020. P. 143-167.
26. Geoinformation Technologies for Geo-Cultural Landscapes: European Perspectives. / Edit. Vassilopoulos A., Evelpidou N., Bender O., Krek A. Taylor & Francis eBooks. CRC Press. 2008. 300 p.
27. Guidelines for Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment. The Landscape Institute with the Institute of Environmental Management. Spon Press & Taylor and Francis group. London and New York. 2013. 184 p.
28. Remote Sensing for Archaeology and Cultural Landscapes. Best Practices and Perspectives Across Europe and the Middle East. Ed. Hadjimitsis D. G. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. 2020. 283 p.
29. Kolbovskiy E.Yu. Chetyre tipa modelej kul'turnogo landshafta v ramkah geoinformacionnogo modelirovaniya: zadachi, vozmozhnosti, ogranicheniya [Four types of cultural landscape models in the framework of geoinformation modeling: tasks, opportunities, limitations]. Nasledie i sovremennost'.2022. No. 5(4). P. 371-391. [in Russian]
30. Langemeyer L, Calcagnia F., Barуa F. Mapping the intangible: Using geolocated social media data to examine landscape aesthetics. Land Use Policy. No. 77. 2018. P. 542–552.
31. Kolbovskiy E.Yu. Esteticheskoe znachenie ekosistem. Ekosistemnye uslugi Rossii: Prototip nacional'nogo doklada.  T. 2. Bioraznoobrazie i ekosistemnye uslugi: principy uchyota v Rossii /Red. E.N. Bukvaryova, T.V. Sviridova.  [The aesthetic significance of ecosystems. Ecosystem services in Russia: A prototype of the national report. Vol. 2. Biodiversity and ecosystem services: Accounting principles in Russia]. Moscow, Izd-vo Centra ohrany dikoj prirody. 2020. P. 95-105. [in Russian]



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