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№2, 2023: Раздел 4. Экологическая безопасность строительства и городского  хозяйства

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[RUS] / [ENG]
Раздел 4. Экологическая безопасность строительства и городского  хозяйства
Ле Минь Туан, Н.В. Бакаева Взаимосвязь между городским островом тепла и городским островом загрязнения: аналитический обзор и методы исследований
Стр.72-83
https://www.doi.org/10.24412/1816-1863-2023-2-72-83


Ле Минь Туан, канд. техн. наук,  кафедра «Градостроительство», Национальный исследовательский Московский государственный строительный университет (НИУ МГСУ),
[email protected], г Москва, Россия
Н.В. Бакаева, д-р техн. наук, профессор,  кафедра «Градостроительство», Национальный исследовательский Московский государственный строительный университет (НИУ МГСУ)
[email protected] , г Москва, Россия

      Быстрая урбанизация и рост населения приводят к возникновению городских тепловых островов (ГОТ) и островов загрязнения (ГОЗ). Эти явления связаны с процессами сгорания топлива на транспорте, на объектах  промышленности и с рядом других антропогенных процессов, а также с изменениями в передаче тепла и движении между поверхностью Земли и атмосферой. Обзор научной литературы за последние 30 лет посвящен в основном влиянию городского острова тепла (ГОТ) и планетарного потепления, которые вызываются урбанизацией. Исследования взаимосвязи ГОТ и ГОЗ в научной литературе пока носят постановочный характер. Основным методом исследования явился теоретический анализ и обобщение научной литературы. Также для исследования связи между городским островом тепла и городским островом загрязнения были использованы библиографические и реферативные базы данных рецензируемой научной литературы (ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, elibrary), используя набор ключевых слов, связанных с городской средой и качеством воздуха. Организованные поисковые работы были проведены для выявления статей, соответствующих заданным критериям. Аналитический обзор выполненных к настоящему времени исследований позволил установить, что развитие ГОТ и эпизоды сильного загрязнения атмосферы вероятны в синоптических условиях, характеризующихся высокими температурами, низкой влажностью, малой скоростью ветра и безоблачностью. Городской ветер с малой инверсией и конвергенцией усугубляет локальный перегрев и качество воздуха, особенно в ночное время. Воздействие усиленной турбулентности в пограничном слое города имеет решающее значение для определения взаимосвязи между ГОТ и ГОЗ. Используя технологию анализа изображений дистанционного зондирования, поддерживаемую платформой Google Earth Engine, были определены местоположения районов с городскими островами тепла и островами городского загрязнения в г. Москве: в северных и центральных районах города, с уменьшением неблагоприятных факторов к юго-западу. Исследования показывают, что городские параметры связана с эффектами городского температурного острова и городского острова загрязнения. На основе проанализированной географической информации в сочетании с облачными вычислениями возможна долгосрочная оценка и анализ микроклимата города.
              Rapid urbanization and population growth are giving rise to urban heat islands (UHIs) and pollution islands (UPIs). These phenomena are associated with the processes of fuel combustion in transport, at industrial facilities and with a number of other anthropogenic processes, as well as with changes in heat transfer and movement between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A review of the scientific literature over the past 30 years focuses mainly on the impact of urban heat island (UHI) and planetary warming, which are caused by urbanization. Studies of the relationship between UHI and UPI in the scientific literature are still staging. The theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific literature were used to study the relationship between UHI and UPI. For this, large databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, elibrary) were used, using a set of keywords related to the urban environment and air quality. Organized searches were conducted to identify articles that met the given criteria, and analysis was carried out on these selected articles. An analytical review of the studies performed to date has made it possible to establish that the development of GOT and episodes of severe atmospheric pollution are likely under synoptic conditions characterized by high temperatures, low humidity, low wind speed and cloudlessness. Urban wind with low inversion and convergence exacerbates localized overheating and air quality, especially at night. The impact of increased turbulence in the urban boundary layer is critical to determining the relationship between the UHI and the UPI. Using the remote sensing image analysis technology supported by the Google Earth Engine platform, the locations of areas with urban heat islands and urban pollution islands in Moscow were determined: in the northern and central regions of the city, with a decrease in adverse factors to the southwest. Studies show that urban parameters are related to the effects of urban temperature island and urban pollution island. Based on the analyzed geographic information, combined with cloud computing, a long-term assessment and analysis of the microclimate of the city is possible.
Ключевые слова: городской остров тепла (ГОТ), городской остров загрязнения (ГОЗ), озеленение, тепловой комфорт, городская тепловая среда
Keywords: urban heat island (UHI), urban pollution island (UPI), landscape, thermal comfort, urban thermal environment

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN URBAN HEAT ISLAND AND URBAN POLLUTION ISLAND: ANALYTICAL REVIEW AND RESEARCH METHODS
Le Minh Tuan, PhD (Technical Sciences), Urban planning department,
National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,
[email protected] Moscow, Russia
N.V. Bakaeva, Ph.d (Technical Sciences), Dr. Habil, professor, Urban planning department, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,
[email protected], Moscow, Russia


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